Background: Based on recent findings, we speculated the existence of the lung, heart, and kidney axis as the main pathway for the COVID-19 disease progression. Methods: This paper reports on an observational study conducted by a team of researchers and doctors of the 118-Pre-Hospital and Emergency Department of SG Moscati of Taranto City in Italy. The study was conducted on a totality of 185 participants that were divided into three groups. The study group included COVID-19 affected patients (PP n = 80), the first control group included patients with different pathologies (non-COVID-19 NNp n = 62) of the SG Moscati Hospital, and the second control group included healthy individuals (NNh n = 43). The core of the current trial was focused on assessing the level of the vitamin D (serum 25(OH) D concentration), IL-6, and the renal glomerular filtrate (eGFR) in COVID-19 disease and non-COVID-19 patients in both groups.
Results: It was observed that the majority of COVID-19-infected patients showed a progressive multi-organ involvement, especially in regard to the lung, kidney, and heart. The majority of the COVID-19 patients exhibited preexisting comorbidities which include cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal disorders accompanied by a severely low level of vitamin D, extremely high level of IL-6, and low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The significant overall damages exerted by the immune-mediated responses under the hyper-expression of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukins, such as IL-6, may be facilitated by either a decreased level of vitamin D or the ageing process. The reduced presence of vitamin D was often found together with a reduced functionality of renal activity, as revealed by the low eGFR, and both were seen to be concomitant with an increased mortality risk in patients with lung disorders and heart failure (HF), whether it is showed at baseline or it develops during manifestation of COVID-19. Therefore, the documentation of the modifiable risk factors related to SARS-CoV-2 and lung impairment in older patients with kidney and heart disease may help the clinician to better manage the situation.
Conclusions: This paper addresses how a low level of vitamin D and older age may be indicative of systemic worsening in patients with COVID-19, with a goal of providing a broader context in which to view a better therapeutic approach.